Adrian Holliday"Intercultural Communication"(2004)
Jant is American and got to know Zhang and Ming, who are Chinese, when they were doing their master's course together. She found that Zhang talked a lot both in class and at other times about Confucianism and how it was the basis of Chinese culture......He (Zhang) said that because of Confucianism, just as it was impolite for children to question their parents, it was impolite for students to question their teachers. This meant that all sorts of things which happened in classrooms in the West, like discovery learning and classroom discussions, were culturally inappropriate in China.......but when Janet told him (Ming) what Zhang had told her about the student having to obey their teachers in China, Ming said that this was not strictly true-that he knew lots of teachers who prepared to be engaged in discussion by this students, that students were certainly not always prepared to submit to teachers who would not listen to them, and that in modern China many parents no longer held the sort of authority that Zhang was talking about.
Janet then read an article which said that people in the developing world had tended to exaggerate their own cultural identity in order to counter the powerful influence of the West.When she put this idea to Ming he said that there was no need to read too much into Zhing's statement about Confucianism.......He (Ming) had seen so many American people in China who had seemed far more 'American' than anyone he had seen here.Surely was it not the case that all people drew more heavily in certain cultural resources when they felt culturally threatened by strange behaviour. So does that mean that Confucianism is a 'cultural resource' she wondered."